မဂၤလာပါဗ်ာ ကၽြန္ေတာ္ဒီေန.တင္ေပးခ်င္တာေလးကေတာ့ Backtrack OS အသံုးျပဳသူေတြအတြက္ အသံုး ၀င္မဲ့ Basic Command မ်ားပဲျဖစ္ပါတယ္ ေျပာရရင္ ကၽြန္ေတာ္ကိုယ္တိုင္က Window User ျဖစ္တဲ့ ပါ  Linux နဲ.ပက္သက္ရင္ဘာမွမသိပါဘူး .........:D အခုလဲ Google မွာဟိုလွန္ဒီလွန္နဲ.ေတြ.လာတာျဖစ္လို. အမွားပါခဲ့ရင္ ခြင့္လႊတ္ၾကဖို.ၾကိဳေျပာခ်င္ပါတယ္ စိတ္၀င္စားတယ္ဆိုရင္ေတာ့ေအာက္မွာေလ့လာနိုင္ပါျပီ
အားလံုးပဲအဆင္ေျပပါေစဗ်ာာာာာာာာ..........................................................(ျမန္မာျပည္လူငယ္)








ls

list: list. It shows the contents of the folder we indicate later. For example. If we want to show us what's in / etc:

# Ls / etc

If we do not interpret anything what we want to see is the contents of the folder where we are today:

# Ls

To display all files and folders, including hidden:

# Ls-a

To display the files and folders along with the rights you have, what occupies, etc:

# Ls-l

If we wanted to display the files in the same way as before, but also showing the hidden:

# Ls-la
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------
CD

change directory: change directory. We can use it with absolute or relative paths.On the whole we indicate absolute path from the root (/). For example, wherever we are, if we write in console ...

# Cd / etc / apt ... we take that folder directly.
# Cd / ... send us to the root of the filesystem.

Relative paths are relative to something, and that something is the folder where we are now. For example if we are on / home and want to go to a temporary folder called within our personal folder.

# Cd tu_carpeta / temporal

We avoided the / home early because otherwise we introduce draws on the directory where you are.

# Cd

What this does is it takes you directly to your personal folder and wherever we are, is really very practical, very simple and that not everyone knows.
-------------------------------------------------- -------------- mkdir

make directory: make directory. Create a folder with the name that you indicate.We may use absolute and relative paths. We can tell you the whole path that precedes the directory we want to create, or if we are in the folder that will contain just enough to put the name:

# Mkdir / home / your_account / cucumber

If we are in / home / your_account ...

# Mkdir cucumber
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------
rm

remove: delete. Clears the file or folder that you indicate. As before you can enter the full path and file name. This from now we will ignore, I think it has become clear with the two previous commands.

To delete a file: # rm filename

To delete an empty folder: # rm foldername

To delete a folder containing files and / or other folders:

# Rm-r foldername

Other options: "-f" does not ask for confirmation to delete or "-v" shows what clears.
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------
cp

copy: copy. Copy the file indicated where you say. Here we can also play with routes for both the source file, as in the destination. You can also put the name you want to give the copy. For example, if we were in / etc/X11 and would like to make a backup of xorg.conf in our personal folder:

# Cp xorg.conf / home / tu_carpeta / xorg.conf.backup
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------
mv

move: move. Same as above, only instead of making a copy, directly drives the file as you indicate, can be other than the original:

# Mv / etc / pepino.html / home / tu_carpeta / ese_pepino.html

Another very practical use that can be given is to rename a file. Simply indicate the new name in the second argument with the same path first. In this example we assume that we are in the folder that contains:

# Mv pepino.html ese_pepino.html
-------------------------------------------------- --------------- 
find

find: find. Find the file or folder that you specify:

# Find /-name cucumber

The above command would look everywhere folders and files called cucumber. If we were confident that is located at / var eg it indicaríamos:

# Find / var-name cucumber

If we're not sure of the name can indicate it with wildcards. Suppose we seek name contains "Pepi" in the same folder as before:

# Find / var-name * pepi *

You have other options. For example we can tell you find the files / folders over 1500 KB:

# Find /-size +1500

Or the files / folders containing the name "Pepi" and have less than 1000 KB:

# Find /-name *-size pepi * -1000
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------
clear

clear: clear. Clears the screen / console.

# Clear
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------
ps

Process Status: status of processes. It shows us what we want to know about the processes running on your system. Each process is identified by a number called PID. If we place ...

# Ps-A

... Will show a listing of all processes, their PID to the left and to the right name. If you want more information:

# Ps aux



-------------------------------------------------- ---------------
kill

kill: kill. Eliminates the process we indicate with PID:
# Kill

Sometimes the process does not "die" at all, but you can force the system to safely kill him as follows:

# Kill -9
-------------------------------------------------- ---------------
sudo

super-user do: do as root. The user account in Ubuntu is relatively normal. Have administrator rights to half. I mean, it does, but every time you do something important and systemic risk, it must be done by the prefix "sudo" and then typing the password.

For example, something we have done many times in the tutorials is to make a backup of the xorg.conf file. It is located in the / etc/X11 and that any user can change or delete anything if you are not an administrator or have rights as such, thanks to sudo. So we always did:

# Sudo cp / etc/X11/xorg.conf / etc/X11/xorg.conf

Whenever we need to make a apt-get/aptitude update or install and actions of this kind, we have to put before the "sudo".
passwd

password: password. This command can change the password for our account.First we asked the current password as a security measure. Then prompts you to enter twice the new password.

# Passwd
his

super-user: root. By "their" we loguearnos as root. After writing it will ask for the root password and we as administrator.

# Su

This command also allows you to login with a different account. For example, imagine we have another account, besides root and ours, called "guest". To login as such would be sufficient to:

# His guest

and then enter the password for that account.

sudo passwd

Thanks to the combination of these two commands you can change the root password (the super-user).

# Sudo passwd
man

manual: manual.'s another powerful commands in linux. Program or command is normally comes with a complete help file on their use and their arguments. When desconozcáis how it is used and what arguments have a command or application you only have to type in console:

# Man named

Sometimes the information you provide us man can become excessive. Almost all commands and applications accept the argument "- help" to display more summarized some help. For example with aptitude:

# Aptitude - help




EXPLORING THE FILE SYSTEM

The file system is a collection of files and the directory hierarchy of your system.Among the main directories are:

/ Bin
/ Bin stands for binaries or executables. It is home to most of the essential system.Most (if not all) of the files in / bin with an asterisk (*) appended to their names.This indicates that they are executable files.

/ Dev
The files in / dev are known as device drivers (device drivers) and are used to access system devices and resources such as hard drives, modems, memory, etc..

/ Etc
/ Etc contains a number of system configuration files. These include / etc / passwd (the user database), / etc / rc (system initialization scripts, etc.).

/ Sbin
/ Sbin is used to store essential system that will use the same administrator
.
/ Home
/ Home contains the users' home directories. For example, / home / user is the user directory. On a newly installed system, there is no user in this directory.

/ Lib
/ Lib contains the shared library images. These files contain code that share many programs. Instead of each program containing its own copy of the shared routines, they are stored in a common place in / lib. This makes executable files smaller and saves space on disk.

/ Proc
proc is a "virtual file system". Files that are stored in memory contains, not on disk.They refer to various processes running on the system, and allow you to get information about which programs and processes are running at any given time.

/ Tmp
Many programs have a need to generate some information and store it in a temporary file. The location for these files is / tmp

/ Usr
/ Usr directory is very important. It contains a number of subdirectories in turn contain some of the most important and useful programs and configuration files used in the system.

The directories described above are essential for the system to be operational, but most of the things that are in / usr are optional for the system. Anyway, are those optional things that make the system useful and interesting.

/ Var
/ Var contains directories that often change their size and tend to grow.



COMMAND LIST 


LINUX Commands
1acPrint statistics about the time they have been connected users.
2adduserSee useradd.
3aliasCreate shortcuts to commands, list current aliases.
4apt-getTool actualizacón / remote installation packages in debian based systems.
5arpLets get / manipulate the list of MAC / IP addresses that the system sees.
6arpingSends ARP REQUEST to other computers on the network.
7arptablesFirewall functions similar to control iptables but arp protocol traffic.
8atWork program, commands, scripts for later execution.
9atqList scheduled jobs pending execution by the at command.
10awkAnalysis and processing patterns in files and listings.
11basenameDelete the path name of a file.
12bcCalculator and mathematical language, very powerful.
13biosdecodeBIOS information.
14blkidDisplays attributes of block devices (disks, usb, etc..) Such as LABEL and UUID, among others.
15bzcatUncompress files using bzip2 compressed or packaged.
16bzip2Compressor / decompressor files.
17bzmoreView the archive contents or packaged using bzip2.
18limeDisplays a calendar.
19catDisplays the contents of files and concatenates files.
20CDChange directory.
21cfdiskDisk partitioning tool, mainly used on Debian systems.
22chageChange the information (expiration, revocation, etc.) of a user's password.
23chattrChange extended attributes of files and directories
24chfnChange the information used in finger.
25chgrpChanges the group of a file (s) or folder (s).
26chkconfigControls / query how services are running or not on startup.
27chmodChange the permissions of a file (s) or folder (s).
28chownChanges the owner of a file (s) or folder (s).
29chpasswdUpgrade passwords or passwords in batch mode. Passwords can update user groups.
30chrootExecute commands in a restricted shell root to a directory and its subdirectories.
31chshChange your default shell or login shell.
32cleanlinksCleans symlinks unrelated and also removes empty directories.
33clearClean the terminal.
34cmpCompares two files byte by byte.
35convertquotaConverts from old formats quota.group quota.user and new formats and aquota.group aquota.user.
36cpioCopy, create, and extract compressed files in different formats and between teams or locally.
37crontabManage files and cron for root users.
38curlAllows you to download or transfer url's.
39cutRemoves sections (columns mainly) of each line of a file or files.
40dateDisplays / sets the date and time.
41dcInteractive Calculator.
42ddConvert and copy files and file systems.
43ddateDisplays the date in calendar format jarring.
44dfDisplays space usage of hard drives or partitions.
45diffSearch and show differences between files.
46digProps for querying DNS servers.
47dircolorsColor setup for ls.
48dirsAllows you to display, manipulate the list of directories used in the stack. (See popd and pushd)
49dmesgDisplays messages system startup (boot).
50dmidecodeList of computer hardware BIOS directly. (Also: lshw)
51dos2unixConverts files from MS-DOS to Unix format / Linux.
52duDisplays space usage of files and directories.
53dumpAllows creation of backups for the file systems ext2 and ext3.
54ECHOPrints a line of text, variables, or content to a file.
55edquotaManages disk quota control user and group.
56egrepIt's like the 'grep-E', to use regular expressions.
57ejectUnmount and eject removable media such as CD-ROMs.
58envRun a program in a modified environment.
59ethtoolAllows you to display or change values ​​of a network card.
60exitExits the current shell or terminal.
61expectCreate sequences and dialogues with other interactive sessions programmed commands or scripts.
62exportExports the value of a variable.
63exportfsMaintains a list of file systems NFS type which have been exported.
64exprMathematical expression evaluator.
65factorFind the primes of a given number.
66fcList, edit and reejecuta previously executed commands.
67fdiskDisk partitioning tool, common to almost all distros.
68fgrepIt's like 'grep-F' to use regular expressions in file searches and listings.
69fileDetermines the file type.
70findFile search, multiple search options.
71findfsFind a filesystem by UUID or LABEL (label).
72findsmbList information about computers that respond to SMB packets.List a Windows network. (Part Samba)
73fingerDisplays information about the system users.
74FortunePrints a random adage.
75fpingLets send ICMP packets (pings) to multiple computers on a network and determine if they are alive or not.
76freeShows the used and free space of RAM and Swap.
77fsckTool to verify / repair file systems.
78fuserIdentify processes using files or connections (sockets).
79gawkAnalysis and processing patterns in files and listings. (Gnu version)
80gccC compiler and GNU C + +.
81geditGNOME text editor.
82gpasswdEnables management of the file / etc / group
83gpgTool generation encryption and security certificates (opengpg).
84grepLook for patterns of strings within files.
85groupaddCreate a new group in the system.
86groupdelDeletes a group in the system.
87groupmodModifies a group on the system.
88groupsPrints the groups to which a user belongs.
89gzipCompresses / expands files.
90haltTurn off the computer.
91hdparmSets and displays features on the hard drives.
92headDisplays the first lines of a file.
93helpHelp on bash internal commands.
94historyDisplays the user's command history.
95hostUtility consulting DNS server host.
96hostnameDisplays the computer name.
97htpasswdManage files of user / password for basic authentication of Apache.
98hwclockDisplays / Sets the date / time changes or hardware. (Date / Time System to date)
99idDisplays the UID (User ID) and GID (Group ID) of the user
100ifconfigDisplays / Configures the system's network interfaces.
101ifstatSmall utility that allows to observe statistics of network interfaces in real time.
102initInitialization control ejecucción level.
103insmodModules inserted in the kernel.
104ipcalcPerform simple calculations on IP addresses.
105ipcountIdentifying ranges of network, IP's calculation.
106iptabDisplays an IP address table prefix according to CIDR
107iptablesFirewall configuration tool for Linux.
108iptrafNetwork traffic analyzer in text mode.
109iwconfigSet up a wireless network card.
110iwlistGets details of a wireless card.
111jobsDisplays user jobs in suspension or background.
112kateKDE Text Editor.
113killTerminates processes, more correctly sends signals to processes.
114killallEnd processes with the same name or group.
115lastDisplays information from past users logged.
116lastbDisplays information from the previous failed attempts to login.
117lessDisplays the contents of an archive, searchable and movement back and forth.
118lnCreate links (shortcuts) soft and hard files and directories.
119localeSpecific information about the local environment variables.
120locateIndexes and searches files. Slocate safer to use.
121losetupDefines and controls devices such as 'loop'.
122lpqSample documents for printing in the print queue.
123lprAdd a document to the print queue.
124lsList files and directories.
125lshwList of computer hardware BIOS directly. (Also: dmidecode)
126lsmodDisplays the status of the modules in the kernel.
127lsofDisplays open files in ejecucción program, or a user, process, etc.
128lspciList PCI devices in the system.
129lsusbList system usb devices.
130mailSend and receive email.
131manCommand displays the manual indicated.
132mcHandler archvivos with mouse support in text mode, not every distro I have.
133mceditMc text editor.
134md5sumCheck (and creates) files with md5 signature certification.
135mkdirCreate directories.
136mkfsBuild a Linux file system.
137mkpasswdPassword generator. (Software Package 'expect').
138modinfoDisplays information about kernel modules.
139modprobeTool to add / remove kernel modules.
140morePager similar to but less funcioanal less as it comes forward and retocede.
141mountMonta storage partitions enabled devices listed.
142mtoolsSet of utilities to access DOS disks from Linux.
143mvMoves files and directories.
144netstatNetwork Utility showing connections, routing tables, interface statistics, etc..
145niceRun a program with a priority other than normal ejecucción.
146nohupRuns a program immune to hangups and without access to a terminal.
147opensslControl, management, security certificate generation.
148partprobeTells the operating system to the changes mentioned in / etc / fstab
149passwdChanges the specified user's password.
150pingSend an ECHO_REQUEST (echo request) to a computer on the network.
151pkillSend signals to processes based on their attributes.
152popdRemoves entries (directories used) from the list of directories used in the stack. (See dirs and pushd)
153prFormat or convert text files for printing.
154psDisplays system processes or user or both.
155pstreeDisplays processes as a tree.
156pushdAdds entries (directories used) in the directory list (stack or stack). (See dirs and popd)
157pwckCheck the integrity of the file / etc / passwd
158pwconvAdd shadow protection or sets the file / etc / passwd.
159quotaYou can see the use of user fees.
160quotacheckCreate, verify, manage disk quota systems
161quotaoffDeactivates disk quotas.
162quotaonActive control disk quotas for users and groups.
163rdesktopOpen graphics terminals has? Ia Windows computers.
164rebootRestart the computer.
165reniceChanges the priority of a process or program ejecucción.
166repquotaReport use of disk quotas.
167resolveipSolve the ip or host domain indicated.
168revReverses the lines of a file.
169rmDeletes or removes files.
170routeDisplays / changes the IP routing table.
171rpmProgram installation / update / removing packages, redhat based distros.
172runlevelDisplays the current run level and previous system.
173scpCopy files between computers, part of the package openssh (encrypted communication protocol).
174screenVirtual terminal manager.
175thirstEditor online file filters and transforms.
176serviceRun / stop services manually.
177setDisplays or sets the environment variables for the user actuual.
178sha1sumCheck (and creates) files sha1 signature certification.
179shoptEnables or disables variables shell optional behavior.
180shredDelete files securely and unrecoverable.
181shutdownTurn off or restart your computer.
182sortSort lines of files and playlists
183ssProps like netstat but basic socket set fast listings.
184sshSecure remote login program, openssh package program (encrypted communication protocol).
185startxLog X.
186hisChange the current user indicated.
187sudoAllows user runs indicate that root commands.
188syncForza memory blocks to disk, update the super block.
189tacAs cat shows and / or concatenated files in reverse.
190tailDisplays the end of a file.
191tailfSynonym tail-f command, lets you see in real time the end of a file, ie as you type, useful for monitoring logs.
192tarTool packer / compressor files.
193testparmCheck samba smb.conf file for errors or corrections.
194timeReturns the time that you ran the command or program indicated.
195topDisplays system processes interactively and continuously.
196touchCreate empty files, change access dates and / or modification of files.
197tputChange values ​​or terminal capabilities, based on terminfo.
198traceroutePrints the route network packets to the destination.
199ttyPrint the name of the terminal on which this.
200tzselectSet an area or zone.
201umaskSet permissions mask when creating directories and files.
202umountUnmount file systems.
203unaliasRemoves alias command, created with the alias command.
204unameDisplays system information.
205uniqOmits or reports on repeated lines in a file or listing.
206unitsConverter units from one system to another, supports dozens of metrics.
207up2dateUpgrade Tool / remote installation package (used in redhat, centos).
208uptimeShows how long has turned on the computer.
209urpmeUrpmi package program to uninstall or remove packages.
210urpmiUpgrade Tool / remote installation packages, rpm based distros (used in mandriva).
211useraddAdd users.
212userdelRemoves users.
213usermodModifies user information.
214usersDisplays the user names of all users currently connected to the system.
215viDisplay visual editor, text editor, you find in all Linux distros.
216vimSame as vi but improved.
217visudoEditor for the configuration file / etc / sudoers sudo.
218vmstatProvides information on virtual memory.
219wShows who is connected to the system and you are doing.
220wallSend a message to all terminals.
221warnquotaConfigure / etc / warnquota.conf to complement messages for disk quotas.
222wcAccount words, lines, characters from a file or listing.
223wgetFile Downloader from the Internet and not interactive.
224whatisShort description, in a line of a command or program.
225whereisLocate the binary, source and / or libraries, and documentation of a comado.
226WhichShows the full path of a command.
227whoShows who is connected to the system.
228whoamiDisplays the current user.
229xhostAccess control for X sessions
230xkillMata or ends to an X client, ie a graphics program.
231yesPrints a string repeatedly until terminated or killed the command.
232yumUpgrade Tool / remote installation packages, rpm based distros (used in fedora, redhat and derivatives).
233zcatUnzip / sample files compressed with gunzip (identical to gunzip-c)
234zenityDisplays various types of dialogues in X from a terminal.
235zlessDisplays the contents of compressed files.
236zmoreDisplays the contents of compressed files.


 

     ျမန္မာျပည္လူငယ္တင္ျပီးသမွ်ပို.စ္မ်ား Download ဆြဲနည္းမသိပါက ဒီလင့္ကို ႏွိပ္ျပီးသြားဖတ္ေပးပါ

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